Elemental Composition and Oxidative Properties of PM2.5 in Relation of Origin of Air Masses in ERCHS II City Tartu

Autorid: Orru H , Kimmel V , Forsberg B , Soon A
Väljaandja/tellija: Epidemiology
Märksõnad: keskkond, keskkonnatervis, õhu kvaliteet, õhu saastamine, Euroopa
Välja antud: 2008
Tüüp: Teaduslik artikkel/kogumik
Viide: Orru H, Kimmel V, Forsberg B, Soon A. Elemental Composition and Oxidative Properties of PM2.5 in Relation of Origin of Air Masses in ERCHS II City Tartu. Epidemiology 2008;19(6):S226.
Alamvaldkonnad:Füüsiline, bioloogiline, keemiline, sotsiaalne ja psühholoogiline keskkond
Kirjeldus: Objective: Air quality is affected by regional and local factors. In northern part of Europe transboundary air pollution plays important role in the pollution levels, since local air is relatively clean. Russia and Eastern European countries e.g. Byelorussia, Ukraine, Poland etc. have still a great amount of industry with obsolete or absent emission purification systems. Formed pollution is transported with air masses into neighboring countries. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which the elemental composition and oxidative properties of PM2.5 are affected by the origin of air masses.
Material and Methods:Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was sampled in Tartu, Estonia in urban background area over one year during the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (ECRHS II). Elemental composition of 71 PM2.5 samples was analyzed for different chemical elements using dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF). The oxidative activity of these particles from 36 samples was assessed afterwards by measuring their ability to generate hydroxyl radical in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The origin of air masses was determined by computing 96 hour back-trajectories of air masses with HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model, developed by NOAA Air Resources Laboratory. The trajectories of air masses were divided into 5 groups (50% of points in a sector) according to geographical pattern (1- Russia; 2-Eastern Europe; 3-Western Europe; 4-Scandinavia; 5-No prevailing sector). The associations were analysed with Statistica 7.
Results: During study-time air masses were coming predominantly (ca 30%) dominatingly from Scandinavian direction; the other 3 directions had almost similar shares (18-22%) and only 8% of trajectories belong into group 5. Higher levels on total PM were found from air masses originated from sectors 1 and 2 (18.51 ± 7.33 and 19.96 ± 9.23 ¿g/m3). In spring, summer and winter, these sectors gave the highest value. In autumn, the abundances were highest in sector 3. For black smoke, the trend was similar as well; however, sector 4 played a more important role in here. From these elements, high levels of Pb, Ti and Br could be seen among air masses from Russia. The oxidative properties were related to direction of air masses as well; showing about 1.5 times higher values when air masses come from Eastern Europe or Russia. Similar relations were observed for Al and Si showing about 1.5 times higher values for all statistics when air masses come from the directions of Russia or Eastern Europe.
Conclusions: The elemental composition and oxidative properties of PM2.5 in urban background is depended on the origin of air masses. The most dangerous particulate matter comes to Estonia with eastern and southern air-masses (Russia and Eastern Europe). The less risky air was observable when air-masses originated from North (Scandinavia). Thus, higher potential to damage the health was observed for particulates coming from areas using less developed technologies and lower environmental standards.